ORTHOGRAFIA CORDKI
ORTHOGRAFIA CORDKI
Dema weşanê: Nîsan 2, 2020, 2:50 Dîtin: 2965

Zhe szedsala 11an ta charieka pyshin a szedsala 20an cordan be elifba cordki a be kertyn (xharfyn) xsareban be zmany khwe nevistenen ud khwendenen. De szedsala 20an da dema wary cordan buye penj parche sistema nevistena cordki zhi belawela bue. Cord iro hina be sy hawai be zmany khwe denevisen. Le Bacorr ud Bashury Rozhava be alfabeta Hawary a be kertyn roman, le Bashur, Rozhhelat ud Bashury Rozhhelat be elifba cordki a be kertyn xsareban a sala 1951i, le Bacorry Rozhhelat be alfabeta Hawary a be kertyn roman a goherrandi ud alfabeta cordki a be kertyn cril a dema Sovieta bery denevisen.

Alfabeta Newrozi be armanja sistemyn nevistena cordki beket yek hatie amadekerden. Zhe ber co de Newrozy da hatie amadekerden me navy Alfabeta Newrozi ly kerdie. De amadekerdena Alfabeta Newrozi da zhe hemi hawayn cordki ud zmanyn proto-cordki py hatenen nevisten sud hatie wergerten. De heman demy da zhe nevistena cordki a cordolog ud gerrcaryn europan ud american yn zhe szedsala 17an ta szedsala 20an zhi sud hatie wergerten.

De nevistena zmanan da do hawayn bengehin yn nishandaina dangan henen. Yek:  nishandaina dengyn teny zmaneki. Italianki, spanyolki, ruski, xsarebki chend nomunyn zhe coma pyshin en. Do: nishandaina dengyn chend zmanan be hev ra. Latinki, fareski, franceski, ingliski chend nomunyn zhe coma dawin en. Romian dema alfabet ud sistema nevistena latinki amade kerdene ly khebetine hemi kert u dengyn zmany hellenki be hawaki de nevistena latinki da nishan beden. Fars wushyn khwe yn aszlen xsarebki mina xsareban denevisen, ly mina khwe dexwinen. De amadekerdena sistema nevistena cordki da me zhe her do hawai zhi sud wergert. 

Zhe bo cord becaneben be Alfabet ud Orthografia Newrozi zmany xwe benevisen by goman demek amadehiy lazem est. De vy demy da devyt be orthografia cordki ra sistema check-spelling zhi were amadekerden. Zhe bo rastter weren nevisten listyn wushyn cordki yn zhe zmany xsarebki ud yn ne zhe zmany xsarebki ly be kertyn  de elifba cordki a beri 1951y da hebunen hatenen nevisten weren amadekerden. De heman demy da devyt listyn wushyn cordki yn homofon ud homagraf zhi behyten amadekerden da co xhata momcun bet merev becanebet wan de nevisteny da zhe hev jehy beneviset.

Amadekerdena wushyn cordki yn be formyn khwe yn grand (strong) ud sevec (weak), formy be hev ve (contraction) ud formy temam (full form) zaf gring est. Be formy grand ud formy temam yn wushan, cordkia formel dehyte nevisten, ud be formy sevec ud formy be hev ve yn wushan zhi cordkia neformel dehyte nevisten. Ydi dem hatie mellety cord zhi bebet khwedi zmany khwe y formel ud neformel. De vy rewshy da kesyn cordkia formel hin beben be hawaeki hysanter decanen zhe zar ud shywezaryn cordki tybegehyn. Devyt nehyte zhebirkerden co zmany akhafteny zmaneki zaf goherbar est; de nav demy da gelec wushyn de rastia khwe da homofon nenen zhi deben homofon ud ry le ber tevlehevia manyn wan khwesh debet. Zmany formel zhe bo parastena sheclushemala wushan zhi khwedi gringiek by hemta est.

BE SIMBOLYN ALFABETA FONETIC A INTERNATIONAL

FONEMYN CORDKI UD NEVISTENA WAN

Vocal

Simbolyn AFI[1]

Alfabeta Newrozi

Elifba Newe

Alfabeta Hawary

Alphabeta Cril

1

ɑ

a

 

ا

a

a

2

ε

e

ea

ە

e

ә

3

i

i

 

ی

î

и

4

o

o

oa

ۆ

o

о

5

u

u

 

وو

û

У

6

ə

e, o, a

 

 

i

ь

7

e

y

yy, ei

ێ

ê

е

8

ɵ

o

 

و

u

ӧ

9

ɑ:

 

aa

آ

a

a

10

ε:

 

ee

ە

e

ә

11

i:

 

ii

ی

î

и

12

o:

 

au

ۆ

o

о

13

u:

 

oo, ou

وو

û

У

 

 

 

 

Consonant

Simbolyn AFI

Alf. Newrozi

Elifba Newe

Alf. Hawary

Alf. Cril

17

b

b

 

ب

b

б

18

bh

 

bh

ب

b

б

19

m

m

 

م

m

м

20

p

p

ph

پ

p

п

21

pʰ

p

 

پ

p

п’

22

w

w

 

و

w

w

23

f

f

 

ف

f

ф

24

v

v

 

ڤ

v

в

25

d

d

 

د

d

д

26

d, z

 

ض

d, z

д, з

27

j

 

ج

c

щ

28

 dʒʰ

 

jh

ج

c

щ

29

ʒ

 

zh

ژ

y

ж

30

l

l

 

ل

l

л

31

ɭ

l

lh

ڵ

l

л’

32

n

n

 

ن

n

н

33

ŋ

ng

 

نگ

ng

нг

34

ɾ

r

 

ر

r

р

35

r

r

rh

ڕ

r

р’

36

s

s

c+e,i,y

س

s

c

37

θ

 

th

ث

s

c

38

 

sz

ص

s

c

39

ʃ

 

sh

ش

ş

ш

40

t

t

td

ط

t

т

41

t

 

ت

t

т’

42

z

z

 

ز

z

з

43

ð

 

dh

ذ

z

з

44

 

zs

ظ

z

з

45

g

g

 

گ

g

г

46

k

c, k

ck, qu+a/e/i/o/y

ک

k

к

47

kʰ

c, k

 

ک

k

к’

48

q

q

 

ق

q

q

49

khs, ks, gz

x

 

کس، گز

ks, gz

кc, гз

50

x

 

kh

خ

x

x

51

ʍ

 

khw

خو

xw

xw

52

ʁ

 

gh

غ

ѓ

53

h

h

 

ھ

h

h

54

ħ

 

xh

ح

һ’

55

ɦ

h

 

ع

h

h

56

Ɂ

 

ء

 

57

ʕ

 

xs

ع

ә'

58

 

ch, cs

چ

ç

ч

59

 

ch

چ

ç

ч’

60

j

y

 

ی

y

й

 

   Diftong

Simbolyn AFI

Diftong

Nomune

61

ɑɑ

aa

taar

62

ɑε

ae

mae, dae

63

ɑi

ai

haidar, daik

64

ɑe

ay

bay corr

65

ɑo

ao

aghao

66

ɑu

au, aw

raun (rabun), tawi

67

εɑ

ea

idea

68

εε

ee

mangeek

69

εi

ei

hein

70

εe

ey

khwendey

71

εo

eo

bendeo, serevdeo

72

εu

eu, ew

heuu, heu, hew

73

iɑ

ia

chia

74

ie

hatie

75

ii

ii

dara biin

76

ie

iy

rendiy

77

io

io

radio

78

iu

iu, iw

stadium, diwar

79

eɑ

ya

chya me

80

ye

hatye

81

ee

yy

chyy wan

82

ei

yi

chyi

83

eo

yo

Khwedyo

84

eu

yu, yw

dyu, dyw

85

oɑ

oa

sershoa

86

oe

reshoe

87

oe

oy

sershoy

88

oi

oi

iroin

89

oo

oo

coo

90

ou

ow

cou, show

91

ɵɑ

oa

joan

92

ɵe

oe

to’y (to dy)

93

ɵi

oi

to i

94

ɵo

oo

kho o (khwe o)

95

ɵu

ou

to ud quy

96

uɑ

ua

tuan, bebua, bechua

97

ue

bue, chue

98

ue

uy

dara tuy

99

ui

ui

buin

100

uo

uo, uw

tuo, ruwo

101

uu

uu

uu

 

 

 

 

 

ALFABETA NEWROZI

Kert

Kert

Nomune

1

A a

ager

2

B b

berf

3

C c

cusi

4

D d

dar

5

E e

eleg

6

F f

fend

7

G g

ga

8

H h

hyk

9

I i

isot

10

Jj

jotcar

11

K k

kereng

12

L l

lale

13

M m

masi

14

N n

nan

15

O o

ordeg

16

P p

pivaz

17

Q q

qelem

18

R r

rozh

19

S s

syv

20

T t

tazhi

21

U u

uti

22

V v

veshartok

23

W w

weres

24

X x

fax

25

Y y

yzeng, yek

26

Z z

zerdeli

 

 

Digraf

Digraf

Nomune

1

aa

caar

2

ea

bear

3

ee

beer

4

ii

biir

5

au

automobil

6

oa

goal

7

oo

boom

8

ou

boum

9

yy

tdyyr

10

bh

bhisten

11

ch

cha

12

cs

cseng, cso

13

dh

dhewq

14

gh

ghar

15

kh

khani

16

lh

lhor

17

ph

phar

18

qu+e/i/y

quer

19

rh

rhast

20

sz

szed

21

sh

shalul

22

td

tda

23

th

thi, thy

24

xh

xhannar

25

xs

xsawr

26

zh

zhuzhi

27

zs

zsarr

 

 

 

 

Derkenar

1.      De vy nevisy da me hendec wushe be formyn wan yn grand (strong form) nevisitenen: kerden : 1. /khεɾdεn/ 2. /khəɾdən/ 3. /kəɾən/ hyvar: 1. /hevɑɾ/ 2. /evɑɾ/ ud: 1. /ud/ 2. /u/ debyzhet: 1. /dεbeʒət/ 2. /dəbeʒət/ 3. /dəbeʒε/ 4. /dəbeʒə/ est: 1. /εst/ 2. /yε/, /ε/, /e/  3. /jə/, /ə/. wem: 1. /wεm/ 2 /εm/ wez: 1. /wεz/ 2. /εz/ hew: 1. /hεw/ 2. /εw/ Zhe van hawayn goteny 1. grand 2. svec 3. svecter 4. svecterin est. Her char hawa zhi de nav gel da berdewam en, ud be qasi hev rast en.

 

ORTHOGRAFIA

Wem dy de parta Orthografiay da be perrani ji beden methelyn nacoc ud yn xhatda inrozh le ser nehati nevisten.

Digraf teny zhe bo wushyn homofon ud homograf

Be digrafyn vocal aa, ae, ea, ii, ee, oa, au, ou, oo, yy wushyn homagraf ud homofon dehyten nevisten.

aa: Taeki bary hespy te khwar est, rast beket. Erdy wi rhast est, cash nene. Bersiva wi rast est. Yek le aliy raasty yek le aliy chepy est. Hew her dem tay hev degeren. Hew be taay ketie, beben jem bezhishk.

ee, ea: Le ber khwe myze beket. Gelek dar le ber vy avy nen. Insal beary rezan tonne. Sing ud beer. Wi terr kerd. Ev dar tearr en. Daran pearr weshanden. Perr, gelek, zor ud zahf khwedi heman many nen.

ii: Dehyt bira men, le vy dery biirek avy hebu. Ev dara biiy est. Myryn bi ud zhenyn bi. Merevyn bery be tir ud kevan bun. Ava wy caniy tiir bu, nedehat vekhwarden. Lazem est dew ne tiir bet ne zhi ron.

oa, au: Golyn sor, golyn zerd, golyn spi le ber gaula avy bun. Barcelonay do goal havyten Madridy. Automobil boha bunen.

ou, oo: Do sal baery ez khwendecar bum. Boum ferria. Dengyn bomban dehat behisten, boom, boom! Zhe hoor ud rovian xhaz nedekerd. Pery khwe hour beke. Pivazyn khwe hur beke. Tury khwe avyt baggagey ud le otobusa toury sowar bud.

yy, ei:  Tyr khwarie. Le pei tyyr chu Chiny. Chyiy beket, lyh mebyzhet. Deiny wi ly (le wi/wy/wan) est. Ev lo lo est, lei lei ma est. Ly disa zhi tu dezani.

Be digrafyn consonat cs, ph, td /t/, c+e,i,y, qu+a,e,i,o,u,y ud k+a,o,u teny wushyn (word) homofon, homograf ud wushyn zhe zmanyn bygane yn wosan dehyten nevisten ud van dengan deden, dehyten nevisten.

c+e,i,y /θ/-/s/: cinema, police, ambulance, biciclet, piece, franceski, Barcelona

cs: De germy da ben csengy merev khwi dedet. Chenga wi shekia. Cso de destan da le pei kery barkeri cho choa wi bu. Cseka khwe havyt peshta khwe ud chu sherr. Bazergan dekanet de shuna pere da chek bedet. Zhe musicienyn cheang ly dekhen ra cheangi dehyte goten.

qu+a,e,i,o,y ud k+a,o,u /k/, /kh/: Bazergany zhyhati cary khwe zhi kara khwe zhi dezanet. Cary ty da kar tonne bet car nene. De vi cari da kar tonne. Kyra khwe touzh kerd. Kyra men zhe bo berrina vi dari be quyr nahyt. Ca (fg cany) te cheqas qua kerri? Bazergyn zhe cary froshtena vi quari (fg. cahr) be qasi cary froshtena quariy (fg. cardi) zhi kar nekerd. Kesi quesa pryza genem berhev nekerd. Kelemyn senjy zaf dejwar en. Zhe dara mazi ra le hendek deran myshe ud le hendek deran zhi keleam dehyt goten. Zhe bazary quelem kerrin ud zhe bo shivy paten. Be corman avy vedekhwet, be korman masian degeret…

ph /p/: Sala phar maly khwe le hev par kerden.

td /t/: Be kyra touzh biberyn tuzh hur kerden. Be tay ketebu. Terzi be tay neketebu, tda be derzia khwe ve kerd ud dest be drutena kenjan kerd. Tdeshtek de teshty da nemabu. Tdol nacanet tola khwe heldet.

Wushyn be digrafyn lh ud rh dehyten nevisten

Hemi r ud l yn le sery wushyn cordki fonemyn /r/ ud /ɭ/ nen. Ev her do digraf teny teny le sery wushyn homofon dehyten nevisten.

lh: Lhema mangy tezhe shir bue. Lor zhe lhor xhaz deken. O laz lhaz o. Lhori lhoria lor bu.

rh /r/: Rhozh jihany ronahi deket. Rozhek 24 saxsat est. Erdy wi rhast est, cash nene. Bersiva wi rast est. Yek le aliy raasty bu, yek aliy chepy. Rha le Mesra bery navy khwedaeki est.

Wushyn be digrafyn dh, sz, xh, xs, zs dehyten nevisten

Be digrafyn dh, gh, sz, xh, xs, zs be perrani wushyn cordki yn be coca khwe xsarebki dehyten nevisten. Wushyn cordki yn de textyn classickyn cordki da be ebjeda cordki be kertyn ع, غ, ح, ذ, ص, ظ,   hatenen nevisten be van digrafan dehyten nevisten.

dh dheka, dheki, dhewq, ledhet, ledhidh

gh gherib, ghezal, gholam, naghme, shoghol

sz faszulia, ikhtiszasz, moszibet, qeszide

xh xhaakim, xhadith, xhaj, maxhkum, raxhm, reixhan, roxh

xs el xsaalem, xsamel, xsameliat, ixstiraf, moxsawin, qetxsi, saxsat

zs zsolm, lefzs, mazslum, menzser, nezser, nizsam, zsalem, zselam, zserf

Hendek wushyn cordki yn be aszlyn khwe zhe xsarebki nenen zhi be van digrafan hatenen nevisten.

dh caghedh

gh agha, caghedh

sz szed

xh xhaisht (hesht), xhaft (heft)

xs xsard (erd)

zs zsarr

Wushyn be gemination

Consonantyn be digrafan dehyten nevisten ne ty da, hemi consonant de rewsha be shedde ud gemination da le ber vocalan dobare deben.

bb moebbed, rebb

cc sheccal, shecco, Becco, ricco

dd gheddar, moqeddes

ff coffek, qoffek (zembila pechuk),

gg aggressive, reggae, ziggurat

hh Dehhak, qehhar

jj dejjal, xhajji, xsajjeqin

kk dhekki, Dikkel Agha, shekker, sikke

ll chell, chelle, chellek, gell,  ghelle, golli, khellek, qoll, melle, shell, shelli, khellasz

mm comm, emman, gomm, ommet, temme, xhammal

nn gonn, jenn, jennet, tonne, xhanne

pp gepp, goppal, qeppar, sheppal, teppek, zeruzeppeli, zoppe,

qq beqqal, cheqqal, reqqas,

rr bacorr, bay corr, berrozh, berrin, derri (stri), cherr, cherranek, chirr (meiwyn xsashkeri), chiirr (balendeyek), errik, ferrin, gerr, gearrek, gorri, jerr, jyrr, kerrin, kherr, korr, merr, perr, pearr, qerr, qerrash, qerrek, qirr, qirrin, querr, serr, sherr, terr, tearr, terral, terri, terrole, varrek, verr, verrni, xharri, zerrin, zyrr, zyrrin

ss hessen (xhassen), curressin, cussi, melessin, messin, pessik, tessi

tt cottan, sette (settyn mywan), xhatta, xsattar

vv bevv, bevvy (zhe zmany zsarran), kevver, tevver

ww gewwer bunden, khewwerin, qewwad, qowwet

yy beyar, teyyar, teyyare, seyyar,

zz bezzin, chezzin, kezzin, kezzerin, qozz, qozzolqort, xsizzet

Wushyn be -k deqeden

Zhe ber co de cordki da suffixyn be -e, -i, -y henen, wushyn cordki be kerta -c naqeden, be kerta -k deqeden. Ev qeide zhe bo wushyn cordki yn zhe zmanyn be alfabetek deri alfabeta roman dehyten nevisten hatenen gerten zhi derbas debet.

Nomune:

belek, buk, dak, daik, dylek, chaidank, chariek, calek, chek, chevik, chik, chrusk, colek, colilk, dak, dik, gelek, gaulek, glok, golek, hesk, holek, hyk, jolek, kek, khellek, khelk, lek, kevchidank, kevok, mak, meshk, mrishk, nisk, nok, peshek, psik, puk, qalek, qezhak, qerrek, rekk, reshk, serek, serok, sereak, shek, xsalok, yek, zsarrok, zek, zirek, … 

Nevistena wushyn zhe zmanyn bygane

Wushyn zhe zmanyn be alphabeta roman (latin) dehyten hatenen gerten be 26 kertyn cordki dehyten nevisten. Kertyn khoszuszi van wushan zhe aliy shekli ve nyzdiki kizhan kerta cordki ben be wy dehyten nevisten. Zmanyn be ne be alfabeta roman, ly be alfabetek den dehyten nevisten be perrani de cordki da chawa dehyten goten wer dehyten nevisten.

Wushyn zhe zmanyn be alfabeta roman dehyten nevisten   

Wushyn be suffixa  -ic deqeden

Wushyn zhe zmanyn helleni, roman (latin) û german hatene gerten ud khwedi suffixa -ic en istisna nen. Dema suffixyn cordki yn be -e, -i, -y ya zhi be van yeky dest py deken le pei van wushan weren, -c a dawia wushy be -ck dehyte nevisten, -c debet -ck+e, i, y.

biologic, biologica, biologogico, biologican, biologicky, biologickyn

democratic, democratica, democratico, democratican, democraticky, democratickyn

ecologic, ecologica, ecologico, ecologican, ecologicky, ecologickyn

geografic, geografica, geografico, geografican, geograficky, geografickyn

sociologic, sociologica, sociologico, sociologican, sociologicky, sociologickyn

sofistic, sofistica, sofistico, sofistican, sofisticke, sofisticky, sofistickyn

Nevistena wushyn graeko-roman

Wushyn graeko-roman yn be latinki ch hatenen nevisten ud /k/ hatenen khwenden be kh dehyten nevisten ud mina orginalyn khwe yn hellenki be /x/ dehyten dehyten goten:

khristian, arkheologia, psikhologia, khoreograf, khrom

Wushyn be y dehyten nevisten ud /i:/ dehyten goten

Wushyn de latinki da be y dehyten nevisten ud /i:/ dehyten goten de cordki da be i dehyten nevisten:

academi, anatomi, analis, biciclet, cristal, dinamic, enzim, etimologia, lirism, melodi, piton, psikhologia, rhithm, sinonim

Wushyn be ph dehyten nevisten ud /f/ dehyten goten be f dehyten nevisten.

filologia, filosof, fon, fonem, fonetik, fotograf, geografia, grafik, diftong, digraf, telefon, telgraf

Wushyn de latinki da be suffixa -ve deqeden

Wushyn be suffixa -ve deqeden mina wushyn cordki yn be kerta -e deqeden dehyten nevisten.:   

alternative, alternativa, alternativiti, alternativy, alternativo, alternativan, alternativyn

negative, negativa, negativiti, negativy, negativo, negativan, negativyn

positive, positiva, positiviti, positivy, positivo, positivan, positivyn

 

Navyn dewletan

Navên welatan de zmanyn germanic da be -land, de xsarebki da be suffixa -ia, de fareski da be -ostan (-istan), de cordki da be perrani be -an deqeden.

Faresan, Cordan, Gutian, Ermenan, Torkan, Turan, Iran, Francezan, Inglisan, Roman, Hellenan, Bulgaran, American, Mexican, Brezilian, Serban, Croatan, Partava, Persan, Medan, Gutian, Someran, Hititan, Almanan, Australian, Swedan, Gorgan, Azerbaijan, Afghanan, Arian, Xsareban, …

Ev nav xsayni mina navyn gelek gund ud herymyn cordan de jomly da natewen ud suffix nagren, de rewshyn namin (noun cases) nominal, dative, accusative, possessive, locative, dative, vocative da naguherren, her dem de rewsha khwe a sade da deminen.  

Ez chum Faresan. Faresan welateki jiran est. Ew zhe Faresan dehyt. Ew le Faresan dekhebetet.  Mala wan le Faresan est. Hun dy kinga herren Faresan. Tajik zhe Faresan xhaz deken. Hei gdi Faresan. Komara Faresan

Ez chum Botan. Botan wareki khwesh est. Ew zhe Botan dehyt. Ew le Botan dekhebetet. Mala wan le Botan est. Hun dy kinga herren Botan. Cordmanj zhe Botan xhaz deken. Hei gdi Botan, Heryma Botan

Navyn melletan

Navyn melletan de nav jomly da be kerta pechuk dehyten nevisten:

Wary cordan wareki khwesh est. Nany faresan by khwy est. Gellyn cord, azeri, fares, xsareb, tork, ermen, suriani be hev ra le heman wari dezhin.

Navyn zmanan

De cordki da navyn zar ud zmanan be perrani zhe navyn melletan ud suffixa -ki pyk dehyten. De formyn grand da suffixa -ki /ki/ dehyte khwenden, de formy svek da kerta k a suffixa -ki nahyte goten, mina fareski be suffixa -i dehyte goten. Navyn zmanan de nav jomly da be kertyn pechuk dehyten nevisten:

aramki, avestki, bulgarki, cordki, cordmanjki, ckerdmanjki, hellenki, fareski, ruski, ingliski, xsarebki, torki, gorjki, belujki, almanki, ermenki, spaniolki, portugalki

Navyn scientian

Navyn scientiyn be ingliski be -y,  -cs, be franceski be -ie, -que deqeden be telefuza khwe a hellenki ud mina latinki be -ia, -ca dehyten nevisten.

arkheologia, autonomia, bibliografia, biologia, cardologia, cordologia, dermatologia, ecologia, economia, etimologia, filologia, filosofia, geologia, geografia, khimia, paleografia, topografia, zoologia

astrofisica, fisica, fonetica, genetica, geofisica, grammatica, linguistica, mathematica.  mekhanica, musica, thecnica

Termyn scientific

Termyn scientific yn de de franceski da be -logue, -graph, -isme, -ist, -cien, el deqeden de cordi da be -log, -graf, -ism, -ist, -cien, -el deqeden:

biolog, dialog, etimolog, filolog, geograf, fotograf, capitalism, socialism, capitalist, economist, socialist, mathematicien, musicien, formel, pluriel

Termyn scientific yn zhe sanskrit hatenen gerten

 itihas, itihasic, itihascar

servenam, servenami

viacaran, viacarani, viacar

wusheshan, wusheshani (sa. vizeshan, hi. visheshan)

Namyn de rewsha nominative da be kerta -e deqeden

mange

Nominative: mange

Genitive: manga, mangyn

Dative: mangy, mangan

Accusative: mangy, mangan

Ablative: zhe mangy, zhe mangan

Vocative: mangey, mangeno

Locative: le mangy, le mangan

name

Nom: name

Gen: nama, namyn

Dat: namy, naman

Acc: namy, naman

Abl: zhe namy, zhe naman

Voc: namey, nameno

Loc. le namy, le naman

khwende

Nom: khwende

Gen. m.: khwendy

Gen. z.: khwenda

Gen. pr.:  khwendyn

Dat: khwende, khwendan

Acc. z.: khwendy

Acc. m.:  khwende

Acc. pr.: khwendan

Abl. m.: zhe khwende

Abl. z.: zhe khwendy

Abl. pr.: zhe khwendan

Voc. m.: khwendeo

Voc. z.: khwendey

Voc. pr.: khwendeno

Loc. le khwende, le khwendan

Namyn merdane

tri

Nom. tri (treh).

Gen. triy, triyn

Dat. tri

Acc. tri, trii

Abl. zhe tri.

Voc. trio, trino

Loc. le tri

 hesp (nyr)

Nom. hesp

Gen. hespy, hespyn

Dat. hesp, hespan

Acc. hesp, hespan

Abl. zhe hesp, zhe hespan

Voc. hespo, hespno

Loc. le hesp, le hespan

abbrevation: m.: merdane, z. zhenane, pr. perrani

Namyn monosilabic yn zhenane yn be kerta -a deqeden

ka, kaa genem, kay, kaan, kayn

cha, chaa soanan, chay, chaan, chayn

ma, maa men, may, maan, mayn

ta, taa wan, tay, taan, tayn

Namyn multisilabic yn zhenane yn be kerta -a deqeden

bela, bela khwedy, belay, belan, belayn

geografia, geofrafia Medan, geografiay, geografian, geografiayn, geografic 

khela, khela 1915an, khelay, khelan, khelayn

qela, qala feraghan, qelay, qelan, qelayn

sera, sera kei, seray, seran, serayn

zeria, zeria spi, zeriay, zerian, zeriayn

America Bacurr, Africa Bashur, Russia sar, Roma latinan, Amida cordan

Aria Shyrco, Emina Xhasen, Saria Ali, Hewa Adem, Leila Qasem, Tara Jaff

Formyn grand ud svek yn pronaman

Nevisten         Telefuza be formy grand        Telefuza be formy svek ud sevekter

wez                 /wεz/                                       /εz/, /ε/

to                    /tɵ/, /t’o/                                 /tə/

hew                 /hεw/                                      /εw/

wem                /wεm/                                     /εm/

hun                  /hun/                                       /wɵn/, /un/

hew                 /hεw/                                      /εw/

Conjugationa verby BUNDEN (BUN)

Present

wez em

to ist

hew est

wem en

hun en

hew en

Presenty berdewam

wez debem

to debit

hew debet

wem debiten

hun debiten

hew debiten

Presenty subjonctive

wez bem

to bit

hew bet

wem biten

hun biten

hew biten

Pronamyn oblic

Nevisten         Telefuza be formy grand        Telefuza be formy svek ud sevekter

men                             /mən/                                                  /mə/

te                                 /tε/                                                      /tε/

wi                                /wi/                                                     /wi/

wy                               /we/                                                    /we/

me                               /mε/                                                    /mε/

we                               /wε/                                                    /wε/

wan                             /wɑn/                                                  /wɑ/

Nevistena hendek verban ud telefuza wan a be zar ud shywezaran a be simbolyn AFI

Nevisten         Cordmanjki               Cordmanjkia Zhyr               Cordmanjkia Zhor

kerden             /k’εɾdεn/                                 /k’əɾdən/                     /kɾən/

khwarden        /wεɾdεn/                                  /ʍɑ:ɾdən/                    /ʍɑ:ɾən/

merden            /mεɾdεn/                                  /məɾdən/                     /mɾən/

khwasten        /wɑstεn/                                  /ʍɑstən/                      /ʍɑstən/

Chend nomunyn preterit yn verban ud telefuza wan a be simbolyn AFI

Nevisten         Cordmanjki              Cordmanjkia Zhyr               Cordmanjkia Zhor

Men kerd.       /mənk’εɾd/                  /mənk’əɾd/                              /mənkəɾ/

Men khward   /mənwεɾd/                  /mənʍɑ: εd/                           /mənʍɑ:ɾ/

Men khwast    /mənwɑst/                   /mənʍɑst/                               /mənʍɑst/

Fonemyn /d/, /ε/, /h/, /k/, /t/, /w/ /x/ yn hendek wushyn le hendek deran zhe bir bunen

Fonemyn /d/, /ε/, /h/, /ɦ/, /k/, /l/, /n/, /ŋ/, /t/, /w/, /x/ de cordmanjkia jorin da le gelek deran zhe bir buben zhi le hendek deran hebuna wan a de zmany gell da berdewam est. Nevistena van dengan zhe hyleky ve zar ud shywezaryn cordki nyzdiki hev dekekt, zhe hyla den wushyn de rastia khwe da homofon nenen ud yn be rasti homofon en zhe hev juda deket, ud ry le ber tevlehevia manyn wushan degret. Ev fonemyn le hendek deran hatene zhebirkerden de zmany standard da dehyten nevisten; be van foneman telefuzkerdena wushan formy grand, by van foneman telefuzkerden ji be navy formy svek pyk dehinet.

/d/ bad, bedbekht, bunden, cardi, chunden, cordmanj, kerdmanj, grand, kerden, khwarden, merden, sard, zerd, ud

/ε/ chell, dekem, de-, chera, cherhanek, gehishten, kezen, qerar

/h/ cahni, cahl, coh, doh, goh, joh, hanin, havyten, hawa, hery, herzan, hewa, hew, hewe, hiro, hyvar, hyresh, kehreba

/ɦ/ cahr, chahv, mahr, pahn, shahre, tahl, zhahr

/k/ cordki, cordmanjki, ermenki, fareski, franceski, gorjki, ingliski, ckerdki, ckerdmanjki, ruski, xsarebki,

/l/ bal

/ŋ/ bang, khweng

/n/ gorn, men, -an  

/s/ gers

/st/[2] est: Ew est. Ew rend est. Ew mi est.  ist: To ist. To rend ist. Tu chy ist.

/t/ Kech teshia dy deryset, corr tiry bavy dekyshet. Gotenek julemergian. debet, bebet, beket, dekhwinet, bekhwinet.

/w/ wem, wez

/x/ dokht, dokhtmam

/εst/: De shywezary derbendki da est mina latinki ud fareski a formel /εst/ dehyte telefuzkerden, ly de gelek zar, shwezar ud shywyn cordki da mina franceski est dehyte nevisten, ly be formy khwe svek /ε/, /jε/, /ə/ dehyte khwenden.   

Compound

Compoundyn be ud be hev ve dehyten nevisten, ud a wan u dehyte nevisten. Ev qeide zhe zmany parthi hatie gerten.

daruber, derducol, hevuden, karubar, kheiruber, khelquxsalem, kerucuchek, marumur, reshutari, ryurywani, shelliusheppeli, soruzeppeli, teirutlur, terrujoan, zaruzych, zaruzman

Pronamyn oblic wi,wy, wan yn be suffixa verbal -y dehyten nevisten

Bedet wi/wy/wan. Bedy

Herre wi/wy/wan. Herry

Men golek da wi/wy/wan. Men golek day.

Kever havyt wi/wy/wan. Kevir havyty

Te zhe wi/wy/wan ra got. Te zhy (zhe wi/wy/wan= zhy) ra got. Te goty

Wushyn be diftonga ei dehyten nevisten

Perrania wushyn be diftonga ei dehyten nevisten be formy grand /ej/, be formy svek /e/ dehyten telefuzkerden.

Nevisten         Telfuza be formy grand      Telefuza be formy svek

deir                 /dεjɾ/                                       /der/

geilaz              /gεjlɑz/                                    /gelɑz/

kheili               /xεjli/                                      /xeli/

kheir                /xεjɾ/                                       /xeɾ/

meiman           /mεjmɑn/                                /mevɑn/, /nivɑn/

meiwe             /mεjwε/                                   /mewε/

neinek             /nεjnək/                                   /nenək/

neinuk             /nεjnuk/                                  /nenuk/, /ninog/

peikhamber     /p’εjxɑmbεɾ/                           /p’exəmbεɾ/

sheikh             εjx/                                       /ʃex/

peiwest           /pεjwəst/                                 /pewist/

Wushyn be cons.+voc. cort+cons deqeden

berrin, berrek, corr, corri, derri, gonn, gorr, kherr, kerr, merr, perr, pearr, repp, sheccal, xhanne, xsattar

Ev qeide zhe bo consonantyn digraf derbas nabet. Nomune: keshin, khushin, mecheqin, gezh, rezhin, rezh, eghleb, Beghdad

Blend

Zhe do consonantyn sery wushy ra blend dehyte goten. Digraf be blendi nahyten nevisten.

br, bl, bz, bzh: bra, brazi, bru, brusk; bla, blog, blur; bzo, bzen; bzhang,

cr, cl, ct: cremit, cryt, cry; clam, clit; ctan

dr, dl: drama, drav, drem, drop (dlop), druten;

fr, fl: frar, froten, fro; flama, flan byvan,

gr, gl, gd: gram, grar, gri, gry; gli, glok; gdi

hr, hl: hri (heri), hla (hela)  

jr, jl: jlyt (gilette),

kr, kl

mr, ml: mrari, mradh,

nr, nl, nm, nv: nmyzh, nvin

pr, pl: protocol, program; plan, ploti

qr, ql, qd: qrar (qerar), qragh, qrut; qlich, qlyr, qloch; qdam, qdy

sr, sl, sp, st, sv: srud, srusht; slav, slivi; spas, spi, sparten, sport; standen, sti, stu, svek

vr, vl: vlek (colilk), vle (gol)

wr, wl: wlo,

tr, tl, tc, tf, tm, ts: tri (fg. treh), trarek, tren, trozi, tli, tlili, tlender; tfal; tmar; tca; tsi

zr, zl, zc, zm, zn: zrar (zerar), zriposh, zreng, zlam, zlut; zcat (zecat); zmag, zman; znar

shr, shl, shk, shm, shq, shv: shrenge, shrut; shlyr; shkeft, shkyr, shma; shqam, shvan, shvile

chr, chl, chc, chma, chn, cht: chra, chrusk; chlo, chlek; chcos (chcus); kchma; chnar; chto

khr, khl, khs, kht, khz: khrar, khrawe, khloring; khsar; khti, khzag, khzan

Blendyn thy kert

str: stran, stri, strin

Namyn reguler yn be -y deden

cry: cria, crian, cry, cryn,

dy: dia, dian, dy, diyn

ry: ria, rian, ry, riyn

thethy: thethia, thethian, thethy, thethiyn

khwy: khwia, khwian, khwy, khwiyn

Namy irreguler yn be -y deqedn

chy: chya, chyan, chy, chyy, chyyn

my: mya, myan, my, myy, myyn,

ty: tya, tyan, ty, tyyn

nety: netya, netyan, nety, netyyn

khwedy: kwedy, khwedan, khwedyn, khwedyo

Wushyn perskerdeny ki ud ky

1.      Wusha persy ki de tensyn present ud ayinde yn verbyn transitive ud intransitive da, de rewsha nominative da ki ye.

Ki est? Ki dechet? Ki debyzhet? Ki dekhwen? Ki vedekhwen? Ki dekhwinen? Ki dy bechet? Ki dy bekhwinet? Ki dy beneviset?

2.      De rewsha nominative da de tensyn preterit yn verbyn intransitive  ki est.

Ki bud? Ki bun? Ki chun? Ki bazdan? Ki revian? Ki deherren? Ki nebud? Ki nebun? Ki nechu? Ki nechun? Ki baznedan? Ki nerevian?

3.      De rewsha nominative da de tensyn preterit yn verbyn transitive da ky est.

Ky got? Ky khwend? Ky khwar? Ky vekhwar? Ky hanin? Ky berden? Ky nevist? Ky nenevist? Ky darek dit? Ky du dar diten? Ky hew qas berkh khwedi kerden. Ky hew qas dew vekhwar.

4.      De rewsha accusative da de tensyn preterit yn verbyn transtitive da ki est.

Men ki dit? Men ki diten ud ki nediten. Te ki berd. Te ki neberd. Te ki berden. Te ki neberden. We ki revand? We ki revanden? Wan ki hani? Wan ki hanin? Wan ki khwasten ud ki nekhwasten?

De tensy preterit y verbyn transitive da nominative ky ud accusative ki

Verb

Nominative

Accusative

Yekane

Perrane

berden

ky

ki

berd

berden

coshten

ky

ki

cosht

coshten

dezdin

ky

ki

dezdi

dezdin

diten

ky

ki

dit

diten

froshten

ky

ki

frosht

froten

hanin

ky

ki

hani

hanin

havyten

ky

ki

havyt

havyten

heshten

ky

ki

hesht

heshten

khesten

ky

ki

khest

khesten

nevisanden

ky

ki

nevisand

nevisanden

nevisten

ky

ki

nevist

nevisten

parasten

ky

ki

parast

parasten

qelebanden

ky

ki

qeleband

qelebanden

revanden

ky

ki

revand

revanden

shcanden

ky

ki

shcand

shcanden

soten

ky

ki

sot

soten

tersanden

ky

ki

tersand

tersanden

 

De tensy preterit y verbyn transitive da nominative ky ud dative ky

Verb

Nominative

Yekane

Perrane

Dative

berdan

ky

berda

berdan

ky

dain

ky

da

dan

ky

goten

ky

got

goten

ky

froshten

ky

frot

froten

ky

havyten

ky

havyt

havyten

ky

 

De tensy preterit verbyn intransitive da nominative ki ud dative ky

Verb

Nominative

Yekane

Perrane

Dative

bazdan

ki

bazda

bazdan

ky

bezin

ki

bezia

bezian

ky

chunden

ki

chu

chun

ky

haten

ki

hat

haten

ky

revin

ki

revia

revian

ky

 

5.      Le duv prepositionyn be, de, zhe, le ud wusha dor her dem ky est

Be ky? Be ky ra? De ky da? Zhe ky? Zhe ky ra? Le ky? Le ky est. Deiny wi le ky est. Le gor ky? Dor a ky est? Hun zhe ky che dekhwazen?

Wushyn be consonant + vocalyn cort /ɑ/, /e/, /ɵ/  + /h/ + /n/

De formy grand y wushyn be cons + vocalyn cort /ɑ/, /e/, /ə/, /ɵ/ + /h/+cons. deqeden da consonanta /h/ dehyte telefuz kerden., ly de formy svek da vocala beri khwe dryzh deket ud be khwe ydi nahyte telefuz kerden. De formy svek da vocalyn cort yn beri /h/ be heman ryzy jehy khwe deden vocalyn dryzh  ɑ:/, /i:/, /o:/. De formy svek da zhi fonema /h/ dehyte nevisten, ly nahyte khwenden.

Nevisten         Telefuza be formy dryzh        Telefuza be formy cort

bahn                /bɑhn/                                     /bɑ:n/

dahn                /dɑhn/                                     /dɑ:n/

byhn                /behn/                                     /bi:n/

dyhn               /dehn/                                     /di:n/

pyhn                /pehn/                                     /pi:n/

tyhn                /tehn/                                      /ti:n/

soht                 /sɵht/                                       /so:t/

doht                /dɵht/                                      /dɵ:t/

dohn               /dɵhn/                                     /do:n/

rohn                /rɵhn/                                      /ro:n/

Wushyn be consonant + vocalyn cort /ε/, /ə/, /ɵ/  + /h/ deqeden 

De formy grand y wushyn be cons + vocalyn cort /ε/, /ə/, /ɵ/ + /h/ deqeden da consonanta /h/ dehyte telefuz kerden., ly de formy svek da vocala beri khwe dryzh deket ud be khwe ydi nahyte telefuz kerden. De formy svek da vocalyn cort yn beri /h/ be heman ryzy jehy khwe deden vocalyn dryzh  /ε:/, /i:/, /o:/. De formy svek da zhi fonema /h/ dehyte nevisten, ly nahyte khwenden.

 Nevisten        Telefuza be formy grand        Telefuza be formy svek

deh                  /dεh/                                       /dε:/

geh                  /gεh/                                       /gε:/

jeah                 /dʒεh/                                     /dʒε:/

meah               /mεh/                                      /mε:/

jeh                   /əh/                                     /dʒi:/

meh                 /məh/                                      /mi:/

reh                   /rəh/                                        /ri:/

doh                 /dɵh/                                       /do:/

goh                  /gɵh/                                       /go:/

joh                   /dʒɵh/                                     /dʒo:/

Wushyn be cons + vocala cort /ɑ/ + /ɦ/+cons deqeden

De formy grand y wushyn be cons + vocala cort /ɑ/ + /ɦ/+cons deqeden da consonanta /h/ dengy fonema /ɦ/ dedet ud dehyte telefuz kerden., ly de formy svek da fonema /ɦ/ fonema /ɑ/ a beri khwe deguherrinet, deket /ɑ:/  ud be khwe ydi nahyte telefuz kerden. De formy svek da zhi consonanta /h/ dehyte nevisten, ly nahyte telefuz kerden.

Nevisten         Telefuza be formy grand        Telefuza be formy svek

dahr                /dɑɦɾ/                                      /dɑ:ɾ/

zhahr               /ʒɑɦɾ/                                      /ʒɑ:ɾ/

khwahr            /xwɑhr/                                   /xwɑ:ɾ/

mahr                /mɑɦɾ/                                     /mɑ:ɾ/

chahv              /ɑɦv/                                    /ɑ:v/

tahl                  /tɑɦl/                                       /tɑ:l/

taht                 /tɑɦt/                                       /tɑ:t/

tahv                 /tɑɦv/                                      /tɑ:v/

tahzhi              /tɑɦʒi/                                     /:ʒi/

pahn                /pɑɦn/                                     /pɑ:n/

 

Derkenar: Nevistena orthografiay ud goherrinyn peiwist berdewam en



[1] AFI: Alfabeta Fonetic a International (International Phonetic Alphabet)

 

[2] De shywezary derbendki da est a verby bun mina latinki ud fareski est dehyte nevisten ud /εst/ dehyte khwenden, de zar, shywezar ud shywyn den yn cordki da est dehyte nevisten; peshti wushyn be consonanteky deqeden /ε/ ud peshti wushyn be vocaleky deqeden /ijε/ dehyte khwenden. Tu ist dehyte nevisten, ly ew -st nahyte khwenden.  De kesy duwem y singular y verby bun da ist her dem /i:/ dehyte khwenden.