ORTHOGRAPHIA CORDKI
ORTHOGRAPHIA CORDKI
Dema weşanê: Nîsan 2, 2020, 2:50 Dîtin: 3715

Zhe cedsala 11an ta charieka pyshin a cedsala 20an cordan be elifba cordki a be kertyn (xharfyn) xsareban be zmany khwe nevistenen ud khwendenen. De cedsala 20an da dema wary cordan buye penj parche sistema nevistena cordki zhi belawela bue. Cord inrozh hina be thy hawai be zmany khwe denevisen. Le Bacorr ud Bashury Rozhava be alphabeta Hawary a be kertyn roman, le Bashur, Rozhhelat ud Bashury Rozhhelat be elifba cordki a be kertyn xsareban a sala 1951i, le Bacorry Rozhhelat be alphabeta Hawary a be kertyn roman a goherrandi ud alphabeta cordki a be kertyn cril a dema Sovieta bery denevisen.

Alphabeta Newrozi be armanja sistemyn nevistena cordki beket yek hatie amadekerden[1]. Zhe ber co de Newrozy da hatie amadekerden me navy Alphabeta Newrozi ly kerdie. De amadekerdena Alphabeta Newrozi da zhe hemi hawayn cordki ud zmanyn proto-cordki py hatenen nevisten sud hatie wergerten. De heman demy da zhe nevistena cordki a cordolog ud gerrcaryn europan ud american yn zhe cedsala 18an ta cedsala 20an zhi sud hatie wergerten.

De nevistena zmanan da do hawayn bengehin yn nishandaina dangan henen. Yek:  nishandaina dengyn teny zmaneki. Italianki, spanyolki, ruski, xsarebki chend nomunyn zhe coma pyshin en. Do: nishandaina dengyn chend zmanan be hev ra. Latinki, fareski, franceski, ingliski chend nomunyn zhe coma dawin en. Romian dema alphabet ud sistema nevistena latinki amade kerdene ly khebetine hemi kert u dengyn zmany hellenki be hawaki de nevistena latinki da nishan beden. Fars gotenyn khwe yn aszlen xsarebki mina xsareban denevisen, ly mina khwe dexwinen. De amadekerdena sistema nevistena cordki da me zhe her do hawai zhi sud wergert. 

Zhe bo cord becaneben be Alphabet ud Orthographia Newrozi zmany xwe benevisen by goman demek amadehiy lazem est. De vy demy da devyt be orthographia cordki ra sistema check-spelling zhi were amadekerden. Zhe bo rastter weren nevisten listyn gotenyn cordki yn zhe zmany xsarebki ud yn ne zhe zmany xsarebki ly be kertyn  de elifba cordki a beri 1951y da hebunen hatenen nevisten weren amadekerden. De heman demy da devyt listyn gotenyn cordki yn homophon ud homagraph zhi behyten amadekerden da co xhata momcun bet merev becanebet wan de nevisteny da zhe hev jehy beneviset.

Amadekerdena gotenyn cordki yn be formyn khwe yn grand (strong) ud sevec (weak), formy be hev ve (contraction) ud formy temam (full form) zaf gring est. Be formy grand ud formy temam yn wushan, cordkia formel dehyte nevisten, ud be formy sevec ud formy be hev ve yn wushan zhi cordkia neformel dehyte nevisten. Ydi dem hatie mellety cord zhi bebet khwedi zmany khwe y formel ud neformel. De vy rewshy da kesyn cordkia formel hin beben be hawaeki hysanter decanen zhe zar ud shywezaryn cordki tybegehyn. Devyt nehyte zhebirkerden co zmany akhafteny zmaneki zaf goherbar est; de nav demy da gelec gotenyn de rastia khwe da homophon nenen zhi deben homophon ud ry le ber tevlehevia manyn wan khwesh debet. Zmany formel zhe bo parastena sheclushemala wushan zhi khwedi gringiek by hemta est.

BE SIMBOLYN ALPHABETA PHONETIC A INTERNATIONAL

PHONEMYN CORDKI UD NEVISTENA WAN

Vocal

Simbolyn API[2]

Alphabeta Newrozi

Elifba Newe

Alphabeta Hawary

Alphabeta Cril

1

ɑ

a

 

ا

a

a

2

ε

e

ea

ە

e

ә

3

i

i

 

ی

î

и

4

o

o

oa

ۆ

o

о

5

u

u

 

وو

û

У

6

ə

e, o, a

 

 

i

ь

7

e

y

yy, ei

ێ

ê

е

8

ɵ

o

 

و

u

ӧ

9

ɑ:

 

aa

آ

a

a

10

ε:

 

ee

ە

e

ә

11

i:

 

ii

ی

î

и

12

o:

 

au

ۆ

o

о

13

u:

 

oo, ou

وو

û

У

 

 

 

Consonant

Simbolyn API

Alf. Newrozi

Elifba Newe

Alf. Hawary

Alf. Cril

14

b

b

 

ب

b

б

15

bh

 

bh

ب

b

б

16

m

m

 

م

m

м

17

p

p

 

پ

p

п

18

pʰ

p

ph

پ

p

п’

19

w

w

 

و

w

w

20

f

f

 

ف

f

ф

21

v

v

 

ڤ

v

в

22

d

d

 

د

d

д

23

d, z

 

ض

d, z

д, з

24

j

 

ج

c

щ

25

 dʒʰ

 

jh

ج

c

щ

26

ʒ

 

zh

ژ

y

ж

27

l

l

 

ل

l

л

28

ɭ

l

lh

ڵ

l

л’

29

n

n

 

ن

n

н

30

ŋ

ng

 

نگ

ng

нг

31

ɾ

r

 

ر

r

р

32

r

r

rh

ڕ

r

р’

33

s

s

c+e,i,y

س

s

c

34

θ

 

th

ث

s

c

35

 

sz

ص

s

c

36

ʃ

 

sh

ش

ş

ш

37

t

t

td

ط

t

т

38

t

 

ت

t

т’

39

z

z

 

ز

z

з

40

ð

 

dh

ذ

z

з

41

 

zs

ظ

z

з

42

g

g

 

گ

g

г

43

k

c, k

ck

ک

k

к

44

kʰ

c, k

qu+a/e/i/o/y

ک

k

к’

45

q

q

 

ق

q

q

46

khs, ks, gz

x

 

کس، گز

ks, gz

кc, гз

47

x

 

kh

خ

x

x

48

ʍ

 

khw

خو

xw

xw

49

ʁ

 

gh

غ

ѓ

50

h

h

 

ھ

h

h

51

ħ

 

xh

ح

һ’

52

ɦ

h

 

ع

h

h

53

Ɂ

 

ء

 

54

ʕ

 

xs

ع

ә'

55

 

ch, cs

چ

ç

ч

56

 

ch

چ

ç

ч’

57

j

y

 

ی

y

й

 

   Diphtong

Simbolyn API

Diphtong

Nomune

58

ɑɑ

aa

kaa niskan, tdaa wan

59

ɑε

ae

mae, dae

60

ɑi

ai

haidar, daik

61

ɑe

ay

bay corr

62

ɑo

ao

aghao

63

ɑu

au, aw

raun (rabun), tawi

64

εɑ

ea

idea

65

εε

ee

mangeek

66

εi

ei

hein

67

εe

ey

khwendey

68

εo

eo, ewo

bendeo, Hewo

69

εu

eu, ew

europan, hew

70

iɑ

ia

piano

71

ie

musicien

72

ii

ii

dara biin

73

ie

iy

rendiy

74

io

io

radio

75

iu

iu, iw

stadium, diwar

76

eɑ

ya

chya me

77

ejε

ye

hatye

78

ee

yy

chyy wan

79

ei

yi

chyi

80

eo

yo

Khwedyo

81

eu

yu, yw

dyubav, dyw

82

oɑ

oa

sershoa

83

oe

reshoe

84

oe

oy

sershoy

85

oi

oi

iroin

86

oo

oo

csoo, chloo

87

ou

ow

cou, show

88

ɵɑ

oa

joan

89

ɵe

oe

to’y (to dy)

90

ɵi

oi

to i

91

ɵo

oo

kho o (khwe o)

92

ɵu

ou

to ud quy

93

uja, uɑ

ua

bebua, bechua, tuan

94

ujε

ue

bue, chue

95

ue

uy

dara tuy

96

uj, ui

ui

to bui, muin,

97

uo

uo, uw

tuo, ruwo

98

uu

uu

buubu, chuubu, uu

 

 

 

 

 

ALPHABETA NEWROZI

Kert

Kert

Nomune

1

A a

ager

2

B b

berf

3

C c

cusi

4

D d

dar

5

E e

eleg

6

F f

fend

7

G g

ga

8

H h

hyk

9

I i

isot

10

Jj

jotcar

11

K k

kereng

12

L l

lale

13

M m

masi

14

N n

nan

15

O o

ordeg

16

P p

pivaz

17

Q q

qelem

18

R r

rozh

19

S s

syv

20

T t

tazhi

21

U u

uti

22

V v

veshartok

23

W w

weres

24

X x

fax

25

Y y

yzeng, yek

26

Z z

zerdeli

 

 

Digraph

Digraph

Nomune

1

aa

caal

2

ea

bear

3

ee

beer

4

ii

biir

5

au

automobil

6

oa

goal

7

oo

boom

8

ou

boum

9

yy

lyy

10

bh

bhisten

11

ch

cha

12

cs

cseng, cso

13

dh

dhewq

14

gh

ghar

15

kh

khani

16

lh

lhor

17

ph

phar

18

qu+e/i/y

quer

19

rh

rhast

20

sz

szal

21

sh

shalul

22

td

tda

23

th

thi, thy

24

xh

xhannar

25

xs

xsawr

26

zh

zhuzhi

27

zs

zsarr

 

 

 

ORTHOGRAPHIA

Wem dy de parta Orthographiay da be perrani ji beden methelyn nacoc ud yn xhatda inrozh le ser nehati nevisten.

Digraphyn zhe bo kymkerdena gotenyn homophon ud homograph

Be digraphyn vocal aa, ae, ea, ii, ee, oa, au, ou, oo, yy gotenyn homagraph ud homophon dehyten nevisten.

aa:  Tdaeki bary hespy te khwar est, rast beket. Hew her dem tday hev degeren. Hew be tdaay ketie, beben jem bezhishk. Erdy wi rhast est, cash nene. Bersiva wi rast est. Yek le aliy raasty yek le aliy chepy est.

ee, ea: Le ber khwe myze beket. Insal beary rezan tonne. Sing ud beer. Wi terr kerd. Ev dar tearr en. Daran pearr weshanden. Perr, gelek, zor ud zahf khwedi heman many nen. Teshtek de teashty da nemabu. Be deasteki dest belend kerd. Gelek merev be deesty (pandemia) coronay merden.

ii: Dehyt bira men, le vy dery biirek avy hebu. Ev dara biiy est. Myryn bi ud zhenyn bi. Merevyn bery be tir ud kevan bun. Ava wy caniy tiir bu, nedehat vekhwarden. Lazem est dew ne tiir bet ne zhi ron.

oa, au: Golyn sor, golyn zerd, golyn spi le ber gaula avy bun. Barcelonay do goal havyten Madridy. Automobil boha bunen.

ou, oo: Be kyra touzh biberyn tuzh hur kerden. Do sal baery ez khwendecar bum. Boum ferria. Dengyn bomban dehat behisten, boom, boom! Zhe hoor ud rovian xhaz nedekerd. Pery khwe hour beke. Pivazyn khwe hur beke. Tury khwe avyt baggagey ud le otobusa toury sowar bud.

yy, ei:  Tyr khwarie. Le pei tyyr chu Chiny. Chyiy beket, lyh mebyzhet. Deiny wi ly (le wi/wy/wan) est. Ev lo lo est, lei lei ma est. Ly disa zhi tu dezani.

Be digraphyn consonat cs, ph, td /t/, c+e,i,y, qu+a,e,i,o,u,y ud k+a,o,u teny gotenyn (word) homophon, homograph ud gotenyn zhe zmanyn bygane yn wosan dehyten nevisten ud van dengan deden, dehyten nevisten.

c+e,i,y /θ/-/s/: cinema, police, ambulance, biciclet, piece, franceski, Barcelona

cs: De germy da ben csengy merev khwi dedet. Chenga wi shekia. Cso de deastan da le pei kery barkeri cho choa wi bu. Cseka khwe havyt peshta khwe ud chu sherr. Bazergan dekanet de shuna pere da chek bedet. Zhe musicienyn cheang ly dekhen ra cheangi dehyte goten.

qu+a,e,i,o,y ud k+a,o,u /k/, /kh/: Bazergany zhyhati cary khwe zhi quara khwe zhi dezanet. Cary ty da quar tonne bet car nene. De vi cari da quar tonne. Kyra khwe touzh kerd. Kyra men zhe bo berrina vi dari be quyr nahyt. Ca (fg cany) te cheqas qua kerri? Bazergyn zhe cary froshtena vi caari (fg. cahr) be qasi cary froshtena cardiy (fs. cari) zhi quar nekerd. Kesi quesa pryza genem berhev nekerd. Kelemyn senjy zaf dejwar en. Zhe dara mazi ra le hendek deran myshe ud le hendek deran zhi keleam dehyt goten. Zhe bazary quelem kerrin ud zhe bo shivy paten. Be corman avy vedekhwet, be korman masian degeret…

ph /p/: Car he hev phar kerden.

td /t/: Be tdaay ketebu. Terzi ta be derzia khwe ve kerd ud deast be drutena kenjan kerd. Tol nacanet tdola khwe heldet.

Gotenyn be digraphyn lh ud rh dehyten nevisten

Hemi r ud l yn le sery gotenyn cordki phonemyn /r/ ud /ɭ/ nen. Ev her do digraph teny teny le sery gotenyn homophon dehyten nevisten.

lh: Lhema mangy tezhe shir bue. Lor zhe lhor xhaz deken. O laz lhaz o. Lhori lhoria lor bu.

rh /r/: Rhozh jihany ronahi deket. Rozhek 24 saxsat est. Erdy wi rhast est, cash nene. Bersiva wi rast est. Yek le aliy raasty bu, yek aliy chepy. Rha le Mesra bery navy khwedaeki est.

Kymkerdena gotenyn homograph

De zmaneki da perrbuna gotenyn homograph hendek jaran decanet ry le ber thevlehevia manyn van gotenan vebeket. Zhe nomunyn de tabloa zhyrin da hatenen nevisten rend khwia debet co merev decanet be nevistena zmany formel (be formyn grand yn gotenan) de derenjeke ne hendek da hezhmara homgraphan kym beket. Devyt ev formyn grand yn gotenan inrozh hina zhi qet nebet le deverek wary be vi zmani deng deken berdewam biten. By goman merev decanet de nevistena formel da jih bedet chend gotenyn analog zhi, ly de zmaneki da hezhmara van cheqas kym bet, hewqas qenj est.

Nevisten

Goten be API

Be ingliski

ader (fs: ar) n. m.

ɑdəɾ (fs: ɑ:ɾ)

fire

ager (fs: ar) n. m.

ɑgəɾ (fs: ɑ:ɾ)

fire

ard (fs: ar) n. m.

ɑɾd

flour

hard, erd, xsard, n. m.

hɑ:ɾd, ε:ɾd, ʕɑɾd,

earth

bad (fs: ba) n. m.

bɑd (fs: bɑ)

wind

bal (fs: ba) prep.

bɑl (fs: bɑ:)

next to

baal n. z.

bɑ:l

attention

balh (bezhnubalh)

bɑ:ɭ

stature

bang (fs: ba)

bɑ

appeal, call

bar n. z.

bɑɾ

bar

baar n. m.

bɑɾ

load

brader (fs: bra)

bɾɑdεɾ

brother

be rasti (fs: bera)

bε rɑsti (fs: bərɑ:)

actually, really

bra (fs: bla)

bɾɑ (fs: blɑ)

let someone do something

bir n. z. birhanin v.

biɾ biɾhɑnin

mind, remember

biir n. z.

bi:ɾ

well

bid (fs: bi) n. z.

bid (fs bi)

willow tree

bi adj.

bi:

widow

bum v.

bum

I was. I became.

boum n. m z.

bum

owl

boom inter.

bu:m

boom

quani, quany (fs: qua) pers.

khɑni, khɑne (fs: khɑ)

where

ca n. z.

kɑ

straw, hay, chaff

cahni (fs: cani)

kɑhni (fs: kɑ:ni)

fountain

kani adj.

khɑni

about source

cal adj.

khɑl

raw fruit or vegetable

cahl (fs: caal) n. m.

kɑhl (fs: kɑ:l)

grand father, grandpa

car n. m.

kʰɑɾ

work

quar n. z.

kʰɑ:ɾ

income, earning, gain

cahr (fs: caar), ked n. m.. z.

kɑɦɾ (fs: kɑ:ɾ), kəd

kid, capricorn

quo (quo dery) prs.

kʰɵ

where

coh (fs: cou) n. m.

kʰɵh (fs: kʰo:w)

mountain

co (fs: ke, ki) pron.

kɵ, (fs: kə, ki)

relative pronoun: that, which, who, when, where

cash n. m..

kʰɑʃ

collin

caashkerden v.

kʰɑʃkʰəɾdən, kʰɑʃkəɾən

drawing

cheng n. z.

εŋ

chin

cseng (bezishki) n. m.

εŋ

axilla (medicine)

cer n. m.

sε:ɾ

head

ser prep.

sεɾ

on

cearr (fs: sal) n. z.

sεr

year

cerr n. z.

sər

secret

serr adj.

sər

cool

cho

tʃo:

giddap (said to make a donkey move forward)

cso n. m.

tɕo:

stick, baton

coart n. z.

ko:ɾt

col, hole, trench

cort adj.

kɵɾt

short

cor (fs: cur) adj.

khoɾ (fs: kuɾ)

blind

cour adj.

khuɾ

deep

corr

kɵr

boy, son

corri

khɵri

colt, young horse or donkey

deast n. m.

dεst

hand

deest n. m.

dεst

pandemic

dest n. z.

dəst

cauldron

ferr n. z.

fər

flight

fert (fs: ferr) n. z.

fəɾt (fs: fər)

(a)    sip, (a) sup

geran pr.

gɾɑn

the collins

grand adj.

gɾɑ:n

heavy, strong

ger n. m.

gəɾ

collin

gers (fs: ger) adj.

gəɾs (fs: gəɾ)

big, huge

goh (fs: go)

gɵh (fs: go:)

ear

got (fs: go)

got (fs: go:)

said

ques n.

khεs

person, nobody, no one

kes n.

kεs

big straw, useless straw

khward (fs: khwar) v.

ʍɑɾd (fs: ʍɑɾ)

ate

khwahr (fs: khwaar) adj.

ʍɑ:ɾ

crooked, curve, wry

khwar adv. pre

ʍɑɾ

below, down

kyr n. z.

kheɾ

knife

quyr adj.

keɾ

useful

mahr (fs: maar) n. m., z.

mɑɦɾ (fs: mɑ:ɾ)

snake

mar n. z.

mɑ:ɾ

marriage

no

no

naughty

na, noa

nɑ: no:

no

par adj.

pɑɾ

las year

phar n. z.

phɑ:ɾ

share, portion, equal part, part, dividend,

perd (fs: perr) n. z.

phəɾd (fs: phər)

bridge

perr adj.

pher

very, a lot, lots

piu! (pii!) interj.

piu (fs: pi:)

phew!

phi n. m.

phi

dad, father

phii n. z.

phi:

peace

pi n. m.

phi

arm, chol (medicine)

rast

rɑst

right, straight

raast

rɑ:st

flat

rhast

rɑst

right direction

rozh (fs: ro)

ro:ʒ (fs: ro:)

day

rhozh (fs: ro)

roʒ (fs: ro:)

sun

rubar (fs: ro)

rubɑɾ (fs: ro)

 

sal (fg: serr) n. z.

sɑl

year

saal, n. m.

sɑ:l

flagstone

sheav n. z.

ʃεv

night

shev n. m.

ʃəv

sprig, switch, vimen,

shirin (fs: shyrin) adj.

ʃiɾin

sweet

shyrin adj.

ʃeɾin

leonine, like a lion

ta n. m.

tɑ

strand, yarn. sapling, plant

tda n. z.

thɑ

malaria

taa n. m.

thɑ:

side, way, part, favour

tdar (fs: tdaa) adj.

thɑr (fs: thɑ:)

further, farer

tdyhni (fs: tdii) adj.

thehni (fs: thi:)

thirsty

tdi n. m.

thi

brother in law

tdesht n. z.

thεʃt

basin, washbasin

tesht n. m.

təʃt

thing

tearr adj.

tεr

sappy (tree), humid, wet

terr n. z.

tər

fart

tir

tiɾ

arrow

tiir

ti:ɾ

thick

to (fs: te) pro.

tɵ (fs: tə)

thou (you)

toa n. z

to:

cream

te pro.

tε

thee

tde det.

thə

never, any, none

xhaj n. z.

ħɑ

pilgrimage

xhaaj, hej n. m.

ħɑ:dʒ, hεdʒ

dry tree branch

zaar n. z.

zɑ:ɾ

dice

zar n. m.

zɑɾ

dialect

sar n. z.

zɑɾ

membrane

zsaar adj.

ɑ:r

Imitation speaking of someone to annoy.

zsarr n. m.

ɑr

child

zoar adv.

zo:ɾ

very, a lot. In German sehr

zor adj.

zoɾ

difficult, troublesome, hard, tough, crucial

pun (fs: pin) n. z.

phun (fs: phin)

coop

pyhn (fs: piin) n. z.

pehn (fs: pi:n)

kick, hack

 

Gotenyn be digraphyn dh, sz, xh, xs, zs dehyten nevisten

Be digraphyn dh, gh, sz, xh, xs, zs be perrani gotenyn cordki yn be coca khwe xsarebki dehyten nevisten. Gotenyn cordki yn de textyn classickyn cordki da be ebjeda cordki be kertyn ع, غ, ح, ذ, ص, ظ,   hatenen nevisten be van digraphan dehyten nevisten.

dh dheka, dheki, dhewq, ledhet, ledhidh

gh gherib, ghezal, gholam, naghme, shoghol

sz faszulia, ikhtiszasz, moszibet, qeszide

xh xhaakim, xhadith, xhaj, maxhkum, raxhm, reixhan, roxh

xs el xsaalem, xsamel, xsameliat, ixstiraf, moxsawin, qetxsi, saxsat

zs zsolm, lefzs, mazslum, menzser, nezser, nizsam, zsalem, zselam, zserf

Hendek gotenyn cordki yn be aszlyn khwe zhe xsarebki nenen zhi be van digraphan hatenen nevisten.

dh caghedh

gh agha, caghedh

sz szal

xh xhaisht (hesht), xhaft (heft)

xs xsard (erd)

zs zsarr

Gotenyn be gemination

Consonantyn be digraphan dehyten nevisten ne ty da, hemi consonant de rewsha be shedde ud gemination da le ber vocalan dobare deben.

bb moebbed, rebb

cc sheccal, shecco, Becco, ricco

dd gheddar, moqeddes

ff coffek, qoffek (zembila pechuk),

gg aggressiv, reggae, ziggurat

hh Dehhak, qehhar

jj dejjal, xhajji, xsajjeqin

kk dhekki, Dikkel Agha, shekker, sikke

ll chell, chelle, chellek, gell,  ghelle, golli, khellek, qoll, melle, shell, shelli, khellasz

mm comm, emman, gomm, ommet, temme, xhammal

nn gonn, jenn, jennet, tonne, xhanne

pp gepp, goppal, qeppar, sheppal, teppek, zeruzeppeli, zoppe,

qq beqqal, cheqqal, reqqas,

rr bacorr, bay corr, berrozh, berrin, derri (stri), cherr, cherranek, chirr (meiwyn xsashkeri), chiirr (balendeyek), errik, ferrin, gerr, gearrek, gorri, jerr, jyrr, kerrin, kherr, korr, merr, perr, pearr, qerr, qerrash, qerrek, qirr, qirrin, serr, sherr, terr, tearr, terral, terri, terrole, varrek, verr, verrni, xharri, zerrbav, zerrguni, zerrin, zyrr, zyrrin

ss hessen (xhassen), curressin, cussi, melessin, messin, pessik, tessi

tt bettani, cottan, fittek, sette (settyn mywan), xhatta, xsattar

vv bevv, bevvy (zhe zmany zsarran), kevver, tevver

ww gewwer bunden, khewwerin, qewwad, qowwet

yy beyar, teyyar, teyyare, seyyar,

zz bezzin, chezzin, kezzin, kezzerin, qozz, qozzolqort, rezzin, xsizzet

Gotenyn be vocalek cort ud 2 consonantan den deqeden

 

berq

chelk

chelm

colm (korm)

cord

corm

cort

delq

fecr

fert

geshk

gesht

gorg

gorm

gorz

jord (jerd)

jorm

kheshm

khesht

khoshk

meshk

perd

perr

pert

pesht

qorm

qort

rend

shocr

tesht

verd (ver da)

vert

werd (wy da)

zert

zsolm

 

 

Gotenyn be -k deqeden

Zhe ber co de cordki da suffixyn be -e, -i, -y henen, gotenyn cordki be kerta -c naqeden, be kerta -k deqeden. Ev qeide zhe bo gotenyn cordki yn zhe zmanyn be alphabetek deri alphabeta roman dehyten nevisten hatenen gerten zhi derbas debet.

Nomune:

belek, buk, dak, daik, dylek, chaidank, chariek, calek, chek, chevik, chik, chrusk, colek, colilk, dak, dik, gelek, gaulek, glok, golek, hesk, holek, hyk, jolek, kek, khellek, khelk, lek, kevchidank, kevok, mak, meshk, mrishk, nisk, nok, peshek, psik, puk, qalek, qezhak, qerrek, rekk, reshk, serek, serok, sereak, shek, xsalok, yek, zsarrok, zek, zirek, …

Gushiy consonanti khwe

De cordki da gushieki consonanti heiest. Hew zhi khwe est.

kwarden, khwasten, khwe, khwaar, khwahr, khwasi, khwenche, khweda (khoda), khwedan, khwedi, khwedy, khweli, khwenden, khweng, khwesh, khwesu (khwesi), khwesh, khweshi, khwi, khwin, khwy

Nevistena purveserkyn da, ra, ve

Her che qas le hendek deveryn Cordan de zmany gella le shuna da, ra, ve purvesergyn de, re, ve hebiten zhi, zhe ber co le perrania wary cordan ud de edebiata cordi a classic da ev purveserk da, ra, ve nen, de cordia grand ud cordia standard da be da, ra, ve dehyten nevisten.

Men zhe wi ra got. Mala wi de nav daran da bud. Zhe hakhafteny perr xhaz dekerd, dema depeivi ta be derziy ve dekerd.

Verbyn be purveserk

da- dabezin, dabohorin, dachekin, dagerten, dahnin, dakevten, dakhesten, daleqin, damezrin, daqortin, darezin, dawerevin, daweshin

hel- helbezharten, helbun, helchenin, helferrin, helgerten, helhanin,  helhaten, helkerden, heldan, helperin, helqetin, helseganden, helweshin

ra- rabun, rachenin, raferrin, ragerten, raheshten, rakerden, rakhesten, rakevten, ramusin, raperin, raweshin, razan,

ve- vearqelin, vekerden, vekevten, vekhwarden, velisten, veneshten, veqetin, verreshin, veshkin, vexhawin (vexhabin), vezhin,

Nevistena gotenyn zhe zmanyn bygane

Gotenyn zhe zmanyn be alphabeta roman (latin) dehyten hatenen gerten be 26 kertyn cordki dehyten nevisten. Kertyn khoszuszi van wushan zhe aliy shekli ve nyzdiki kizhan kerta cordki ben be wy dehyten nevisten. Zmanyn be ne be alphabeta roman, ly be alphabetek den dehyten nevisten be perrani de cordki da chawa dehyten goten wer dehyten nevisten.

Gotenyn zhe zmanyn be alphabeta roman dehyten nevisten   

Gotenyn be suffixa  -ic deqeden

Gotenyn zhe zmanyn helleni, roman (latin) û german hatene gerten ud khwedi suffixa -ic en istisna nen. Dema suffixyn cordki yn be -e, -i, -y ya zhi be van yeky deast py deken le pei van wushan weren, -c a dawia goteny be -ck dehyte nevisten, -c debet -ck+e, i, y.

biologic, biologica, biologogico, biologican, biologicky, biologickyn

democratic, democratica, democratico, democratican, democraticky, democratickyn

ecologic, ecologica, ecologico, ecologican, ecologicky, ecologickyn

geographic, geographica, geographico, geographican, geographicky, geographickyn

sociologic, sociologica, sociologico, sociologican, sociologicky, sociologickyn

sophistic, sophistica, sophistico, sophistican, sophisticke, sophisticky, sophistickyn

Nevistena gotenyn graeko-roman

Gotenyn graeko-roman yn be latinki ch hatenen nevisten ud /k/ hatenen khwenden be ch dehyten nevisten. Ev goten de formy grand da mina orginalyn khwe yn hellenki be /x/ dehyten goten, de formy svec da mina latinki be /k/ dehyten goten.

archaeologia, psichologia, choreograph, chrom

Gotenyn be y dehyten nevisten ud /i:/ dehyten goten

Gotenyn be aszlyn khwe hellenki nen, de latinki da be y dehyten nevisten ud /i:/ dehyten goten de cordki da be i dehyten nevisten:

academi, anatomi, analis, biciclet, cristal, dinamic, enzim, etimologia, lirism, melodi, piton, psikhologia, rhithm, sinonim

Gotenyn be ph dehyten nevisten ud /f/ dehyten goten

Gotenyn be ph dehyten nevisten ud /f/ dehyten khwenden be ph dehyten nevisten. Chemki dema ev goten zhe hellenki ketenen latinki be kerta co inrozh grek phonema /f/ denevisen phonema p a aspirant /ph/ hatie nevisten.

philologia, philosoph, phon, phonem, phonetic, photograph, geographia, graphik, diphtong, digraph, telephon, telegraph

Gotenyn de latinki da be suffixa -ve deqeden

Gotenyn be suffixa -ve deqeden mina by -e dehyten nevisten.:   

alternativ, alternativa, alternativiti, alternativy, alternativo, alternativan, alternativyn

negativ, negativa, negativiti, negativy, negativo, negativan, negativyn

positiv, positiva, positiviti, positivy, positivo, positivan, positivyn

Perrania nediar (perrania indefinit)

Perrania nediar, be gotenek perrana hendek, de gotenyn be consonanteky deqeden da be suffixa -en, de gotenyn be vocaleky deqeden da be suffixa -inen dehyte nishandain. Dema ev goten peshti wusha henden behyten nevisten by van suffixan dehyten nevisten.

bazharen         hendek bazhar

cheken            hendek chek

deren               hendek der

golen               hendek gol

gonden                       hendek gond

hyzhiren          hendek hyzhir

mereven          hendek merev

syven              hendek syv

zsarren            hendek zsarr

bazharinen      hendek bazhari

charenen         hendek chare

derinen            hendek deri

gondinen         hendek gondi

masenen          hendek mase

tahzhinen        hendek tahzhi

Be prespositionyn be, de, le, zhe ra nevistena navyn merdane

Nam                Be …              De …              Le …              Zhe

ager                 be ager                        de ager                        le ager             zhe ager

Ali                   be Ali              de Ali              le Ali               zhe Ali

Beg                 be beg             de beg             le beg              zhe beg

Bergo              be Bergo         de Bergo         le Bergo          zhe Bergo

chahv              be chahv         de chahv         le chahv          zhe chahv

chem               be chem          de chem          le chem           zhe chem

corr                 be corr             de corr            le corr              zhe corr

deast               be deast          de deast          le deast           zhe deast

dik                  be dik              de dik             le dik               zhe dik

Dijle                be Dijle           de Dijle           le Dijle            zhe Dijle

gond               be gond           de gond          le gond            zhe gond

gorg                 be gorg            de gorg           le gorg             zhe gorg

hesp (nyr)        be hesp            de hesp           le hesp             zhe hesp

Jemil               be Jemil           de Jemil          le Jemil            zhe Jemil

khwedy           be khwedy      de khwedy      le khwedy       zhe khwedy

mahr                be mahr           de mahr           le mahr            zhe mahr

nyri                 be nyri             de nyri            le nyri              zhe nyri

Shyrgo                        be Shyrgo       de Shyrgo       le Shyrgo        zhe Shyrgo

tri                    be tri               de tri               le tri                zhe tri

Navyn continentan

Africa

America

Australia

Asia

Europa

Navyn dewletan

Navên welatan de zmanyn germanic da be -land, de xsarebki da be suffixa -ia, de fareski da be -ostan (-istan), de cordki da be perrani be -an deqeden. Ev navyn dewletan xsayni mina navyn gelek gund ud herymyn cordan de jomly da natewen ud suffix nagren, de rewshyn nominal, dativ, accusativ, possessiv, locativ ud vocativ da naguherren; her dem de rewsha khwe a sade da deminen.

Nomune 1: Ez chum Faresan. Faresan welateki jiran est. Ew zhe Faresan dehyt. Ew le Faresan dekhebetet.  Mala wan le Faresan est. Hun dy kinga herren Faresan. Tajik zhe Faresan xhaz deken. Hei gdi Faresan. Komara Faresan

Nomune 2: Ez chum Botan. Botan wareki khwesh est. Ew zhe Botan dehyt. Ew le Botan dekhebetet. Mala wan le Botan est. Hun dy kinga herren Botan. Cordmanj zhe Botan xhaz deken. Hei gdi Botan, Heryma Botan

 

 

Africa Bashur

America

Andorra

Angola

Antigua ud Barbuda

Argentina

Arian, Iran

Arnautan

Australia

Austuria

Azerbaijan, Athropatane

Bahaman

Barbados

Baxhrein

Belarus

Belgium

Belize

Bengladesh

Benin

Bharat, Hindistan

Bhutan

Bolivia

Bosnia Hersek

Bostwana

Bresilia

Brunei

Bulgaran

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cabo Verde

Cambodia

Camerun

Canada

Catalunia

Cazakhestan, Cazakhan

Chad

Chad

Chechia

Chili

Chin

Columbia

Comara Africa Central

Comara Dominican

Comoros

Cordan

Core

Cosovo

Costa Rica

Cote d’Ivoire

Croatan, Khervatan

Cuba

Cuweit

Denmark

Djibouti

Dominica

Ecuador

El Salvador

Emirat

Eritre

Estonia

Eswatini

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Faresan, Parsan

Fas

Felestin

Fiji

Finland

France

France, Gallia

Gabon

Gambia

Gana

Germenan, Almania

Gine

Gorjan

Grenada

Guatemala

Guetamala

Guinea Papua New

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Hayestan, Ermenan

Hellenan, Yunan

Hititan

Holland

Honduras

Hungaria, Majaran

Iceland

Indonezia

Inglisan

Iraq

Irland

Island

Israil

Italia

Jamaica

Jezair

Jeziryn Marshall

Kebres

Kenia

Kirghezestan, Kirghezan

Kiribati

Laos

Lesotho

Liberia

Libia

Liechtenstein

Litvania

Lobnan

Luxembourg

Lydian, Lydia

Macedonia

Madagascar

Malawi

Maldivan

Malesia

Mali

Malta

Mauritania

Mauritius

Medan, Media

Meser

Mexica

Micronesia

Moldova

Monaco

Mongolan, Mongolia

Montenegro

Mozambique

Myanmar

Namibia

Nauru

Nepal

Nicaragua

Niger

Nigeria

Nippon, Japonia

Norwey

Pakistan

Palau

Panama

Paraguay

Partava, Parthia

Peru

Philippinan

Polonia

Portugal

Qatar

Rom

Romania

Ruanda

Rumenia

Samoa

San Marino

Scotland

Seishellan

Senegal

Serban, Serbia

Sierra Leone

Singapur

Slovakia

Slovenia

Somalia

Someran

Sovietan

Spania

Sri Lanka

Sudan

Suria

Suriname

Swissre

Swedan, Swyd

Taiwan

Tajikan, Tajikistan

Tanzania

Timora Rozhhelat

Togo

Tonga

Torkan, Torkia

Torkmenistan

Tunus

Turan

Tuvalu

Uganda

Ukrania

Uman

Urdun

Uresyt, Russia

Uruguay

Uzbekan, Uzbekistan

Vanuatu

Vatican

Venezuela

Vietnam

Xsareban

Xsarebistana Soxsudi

Yemen

Yugoslavia

Zambia

Zealanda New

Zimbabwe

 

Adjectivyn geographic ud national

Adjectivyn geographic ud national de nav jomly da be kertyn hur dehyten nevisten.

 

african

 asian

europan

australian

afghan

jezairi

angolan

argentini

austrian

bengladeshi

belarusi

belgiki

bolivian

bresilian

britani

bulgar

cambodian

cameruni

canadi

chadi

colombi

croat

chek

congolis

dani

ecuadori

meseri

salvadori

inglis

estoni

ethiopi

finni

frances

german, alman

ghanai

hellen

guatemalan

hollandi

honduran

hungarian, mejer

icelandi

hindi, sendi

indonesi

arian, ari, irani

iraqi

irlandi

israili

italian

ivorian

jamaican

nippon, japon

urduni

cazakh

kenian

lao

latvian

libyan

lathuani

madagasi

malesian

malian

mauritani

mexican

fasi

namibian

nicaraguan

nigerian

norwegian

umani

pakistani

panaman

paraguayan

peruvian

philippini

poli, leh

portugiz

congoi

romen

ures, rus

scoch

senegali

serb

singapori

slovak

somalian

spaniol

sudani

swendi

swiss

surian

thai

tunesi

tork

torkman

ukrani

emirati

american

uruguai

vietnami

galleri

zambiai

zimbamwei

 

Navyn hendek zmanan zendi yn jihany

De cordki da navyn zar ud zmanan be perrani zhe navyn melletan ud suffixa -ki pyk dehyten. De formyn grand da suffixa -ki /ki/ dehyte khwenden, de formy svek da kerta k a suffixa -ki nahyte goten, mina fareski be suffixa -i dehyte goten. Navyn zmanan de nav jomly da be kertyn pechuk dehyten nevisten:

 

amharicki

assamese

azerki

bavarian

bengalki

bhojpuri

burmeski

cazakhki

cebuano

cheki

chinki

chittagonian

cordki

ckerdmanjki

cordmanjki

coreki

deccan

duchki, hollandki

fareski

franceski

fulfulde

fulfuldki

germanki, almanki

gujeratki

hakkaki

hausaki

hellenki, yunanki

hindki, sendki

hungarianki, majarki

igbo

indoneski

ingliski

italianki

javaki

kannadaki

khmerki

kinyarwanda

magahi

magahiki

maithili

malaiki

malayalam

marathi

nepalki

nipponki, japonki

odia

penjabki

peshtoki

polki, lehki

portekizki

rumenki

rundki

ruski

saraiki

sindhki

sinlahese

somaliki

spaniolki

sunda

tagalog

tamilki

telugu

thaiki

torki

uigurki

ukranki

urduki

uzbeki

vietnamki

xsarebki

yorubaki

zuluki

 

Nav ud adjectivyn zaninan

Navyn zaninan be ingliski be -y,  -cs, be franceski be -ie, -que deqeden be telefuza khwe a hellenki ud mina latinki be -ia, -ca dehyten nevisten. Navyn zaninan zhe helleni ud latini, adjectiv ud adverbyn zaninan zhe latini ud francezi hatenen gerten. Suffixa adverbi a -ment zhe suffixa adverbi a francezi -ment hatie gerten. Kerta t a suffixa -ment dehyte nevisten, ly nahyte telefuzkerden.

Nav

Adjectiv

Adverb

Zanyary wi cari

anatomia

anatomic

anatomicment

anatomist

archaeologia

archeologic

archeologicment

archeolog

astronomia

astronomic

astronomicment

astronom

bacteriologia

bacteriologic

bacteriologicment

bacteriologist

biologia

bilologic

biologicment

biologist

botani

botanic

botanicment

botanist

cardiologia

cardiologic

cardiologicment

cardiologist

cartographia

cartographic

cartographicment

cartograph

chimia

chimic

chimicment

chimiager

chronologia

chronologic

chronologicment

chronolog

climatologia

climatologic

climatologicment

climatolog

cordologia

cordologic

cordologicment

cordolog

cosmologia

cosmologic

cosmologicment

cosmolog

demographia

demographic

demographicment

demograph

dermatologia

dermatologic

dermatologicment

dermatolog

dialectologia

dialectologic

dialectologicment

dialectolog

dinamic

dinamic

dinamicment

dinamist

ecologia

ecologic

ecologicment

ecolog

economi

economic

economicment

economist

enzimologia